Now a days, Linux is used widely in laptops, tablets, smartphones, desktops, and even home appliances. We will check out 20 beginner Linux commands and you should try to learn them.

20 beginner Linux commands you should learn

Perception “distributions” in Linux

For every, kind of user or customer Linux comes with a wide range of variants and expectations.

The variants are the generic name of Distributions or distros. Every user can be downloaded and installed Linux distributions for free into your machine.

There are most common Linux distributions given below:

  1. Ubuntu
  2. Linux Mint
  3. Manjaro
  4. Fedora
  5. Debian

Why should you learn more about Linux and What is Linux?

Linux is a used server-based operating system and is common in embedded systems.

For example, Google Earth and Google Chrome are widely dependent on Linux.

Linux will make your development easier for the build server-side application.

20 beginner linux commands

20 beginner Linux commands you should learn

First, you need to open the command line, now we go to list commands.

Below is a list of basic 20 beginner Linux command we are discussing:

1. Command PWD

pwd command is to find your current working directory path or folder where you are in.

PWD command will return to your current working path where is basically directory path starts with a forward slash(/).

Example: /home/your-username

2. Command CD

cd command used for the get full directory name or files path and it will depend on your current working directory.

For example, you are in your directory /home/your-username/documents you need to go to your Photos directory which is a subdirectory of Documents.

So, just you write the following command: cd Photos.

Although there are shortcut keys that helped to you quickly

Cd: go to the straight home folder

cd-: back to your before the directory

cd..: go to one directory up

You need to write the exact directory name because the Linux shell is case-sensitive.

3. Command Is

View the contents of the directory you need IS commands.

By default, this IS command will display the contents of your recent working directory.

If you need to see the other contents directories, then you should type just Is and the directory path.

For example, enter the line Is/your-username/Documents to view the content of the Documents.

Given below “Is” command variation that you need:

You can use the below variation with the ls command:
  • ls -a command will show you the hidden files

4. Command cat

The Linux commands most frequently used is the cat

One of the most frequently used Linux commands is the cat.

It will show you the list of file names and his extension as like cat-file.txt

You can use the cat command in a different way:
  • cat > your-filename will create a new file
  • cat your-filename1 your-filename2>your-filename3 will join two files and contain the output of them in a new file (3)
  • if you need to convert a file to upper or lower case then use, cat your-filename | tr a-z A-Z >your-output.txt

5. Command cp

You need to copy files from the current directory to another directory then you need to use the cp command.

Example: cp screenshot.png /home/your-username/Pictures would create a copy of screenshot.png into the Pictures directory.

6. Command mv

Basically, this command is used for moving files also you can be used to rename the files.

It is similar cv and mv command, you need to type just mv and the files name and the directories.


mv your-file.txt


If you need to rename the files name, then type:

mv your-oldfilename.txt your-newfilename.txt

7. Command mkdir

For creating a new directory then you should need the mkdir command.


Type mkdir Your-Music it will create your new directory named Your-Music

Also if you need to create another directory inside the Your-Music directory then type mkdir Your-Music/Your-New-File

8. Command rmdir

The rmdir command used for deleting the directory will only delete the empty directories.

9. Command rm

If you need to delete the directory, then you will need this command.

Also, you need to be sure to run this command because it will delete everything and is not undo.

10. Command touch 

To create a new blank file, type the touch command.


touch /home/your-username/Documents/test.html

it will create a new test.html file under the Documents directory.

11. Command locate

Command locate is just like a search command in windows.

Sometimes you can’t remember your exact file location and name.

You can use this command to search your file, use –i argument it will be case-insensitive.

Use an asterisk (*) to search two or more words.

Example: locate –I rony*note this command will find contains that the word rony and note it will do not the fact for lowercase and uppercase.


12. Command find

Command locate and command find are similar.

It is also used for searching your files and directories.

For example, the find /home/ -name your-notes.txt command will search for a file called your-notes.txt within the home directory and its subdirectories.

13. Command grep

Command grep is another basic Linux command used for searching the word from your file.


Type grep red your-note.txt it will search for the word red in the text file.

14. Command head

You need to view the first line for any text you need to the head command.


Type head -n 5 your-filename.txt. it will show you the first 5 lines.

15. Command tar

The tar command is the greater used command to record multiple files into a tarball

A common Linux file format that the same to zip format, with constriction being optional.

16. Command chmod

Another chmod command is used for the write, read, and for permission execute for the file and directories. This command is complicated.

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17. Command kill

You can terminate your unresponsive program by the kill command.

18. Command ping

Command ping is used to check your connectivity status to the server.

For example: if you enter the ping the command will be able to connect and measure the response time.

19. Command hostname

The command hostname is used to know the name of your host/network.

If you add a –i to the end it will display the IP address of your current network.

20. Command echo

The command echo is used to move some data into a file. For example, if you want to add, “Hello, my name is Ron” into a file called your-name.txt, you would write echo Hello, my name is Ron >> your-name.txt 


The Basic Linux commands help you execute tasks easily. It will take a while to remember some of the basic commands, but nothing is impossible with practice make a perfect.

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